Last Updated July 17, 2017


TEMP/W is formulated to analyze ground temperature changes, including the effects of latent heat due to the phase change from ice to water and from water to ice. The analysis of latent heat effects makes TEMP/W a powerful software product for analyzing various ground conditions.

TEMP/W uses Gaussian numerical integration to formulate the element characteristic matrices. The integration involves sampling the element characteristics at selected points and summing the sampled values. As a result, it is possible to use a different material property at each sampled point, allowing the material properties to vary throughout the element.

A soil’s thermal conductivity varies with temperature. TEMP/W accommodates this with a general conductivity function, making it possible to consider a smooth transition in conductivity as the temperature changes from thawed to frozen conditions and vice versa.


  • Analysis types include steady-state or transient energy flow, 2-D energy flow in a cross-section or in plan view, and 3D axisymmetric energy flow.
  • Boundary condition types include temperature or flux (fixed or a function of time), thermosyphons, convective surfaces, or imported climate data.
  • Latent heat modeled using an unfrozen water content function.
  • Frozen and unfrozen volumetric heat capacity and the volumetric water content specified individually for each soil type.
  • Adaptive time stepping automatically inserts additional time steps when nodal temperatures change more than the specified criteria.
  • Initial conditions obtained from a previous analysis or specified as constant nodal temperatures.
  • plus many more!

Integration with Other Applications

Measured climate data can be pasted from a spreadsheet into TEMP/W and used to determine the actual ground surface temperatures with or without snowpack. TEMP/W will use precipitation data to accumulate snow depths over the winter. An energy balance approach is used to calculate ground temperatures beneath snow and to melt snow during the spring. Link it with SEEP/W or AIR/W for convective heat transfer analysis

Engineering Methodology Book

The included TEMP/W engineering methodology book discusses the whys and hows of modeling, as well as the theory and formulations behind the TEMP/W product.Thermal Modeling with TEMP/W is a full-length book about proper modeling techniques: how to think before, during and after setting up and solving a model. The book includes chapters devoted to:
  • Numerical Modeling: What, Why and How
  • Geometry and Meshing
  • Material Models and Properties
  • Bounday Conditions
  • Analysis Types
  • Functions in GeoStudio
  • Numerical Issues
  • Visualization of Results
  • Modeling Tips and Tricks
  • Illustrative Examples
  • Theory